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      權威視點
      首頁 > 權威視點 > 正文
      物流整合的三個方向
      姓名:Shechem 發布時間:2019/06/24

      整合是一個漢語詞匯,意思是把零散的東西彼此銜接,從而實現系統的資源共享和協同工作,形成有價值有效率的一個整體。

       

      整合是一個漢語詞匯,意思是把零散的東西彼此銜接,從而實現系統的資源共享和協同工作,形成有價值有效率的一個整體。

      物流行業的整合包含貨量的整合、資源的整合、能力的整合、系統的整合、信息的整合、價值的整合等多個方面,目的就是一方面為客戶提供更優質的服務、更優化的成本,另一方面讓企業的實力進一步提升、能力進一步壯大。

      物流行業的參與者眾多,主體復雜,背景各異,目標和方向也千差萬別。但萬變不離其宗,要成為有競爭力的物流企業需在物流整合上有所突破。

      物流整合存在三個關鍵方向:垂直供應鏈整合、水平供應鏈整合、物流產品整合。鏈路的打通有利于物流優化,但商業生態體系中,各企業的獨立性、目標不一致性及物流對商流的依附性,使之形成制約。

      一、制造或品牌鏈主企業所孵化的物流企業有垂直整合的優勢和動機。

      代表企業:速必達希杰、日日順、安得、安吉、準時達等,整合方法為物流能力牽引或供應鏈牽引/脅迫。垂直供應鏈整合有極強的穿透能力,特別是可以向上游進行采購供應鏈的持續延展和模式演進(一級、二級供應商物流)。

      二、平臺鏈主企業所孵化的物流企業有水平整合的優勢和動機。

      代表企業:菜鳥、京東物流、蘇寧物流、安迅物流等,整合方法為物流能力牽引或供應鏈牽引/脅迫。水平供應鏈整合基本止步于當前成品供應鏈(難以向上穿透達到零部件、原材料供應鏈),水平供應鏈整合在同品類具有極高效果,但由于數據和用戶的敏感性,存在防備和猜疑鏈。

      三、純物流出身的物流企業在建立物流產品能力優勢后,可拓展垂直/水平供應鏈整合。

      代表企業:順豐、德邦、中通、中外運等,整合方法為以物流能力牽引,不以供應鏈為依托,只要是符合相同物流要求的業務均可進行整合(不同品類、原材料/成品等)。從物流產品出發,通過貨量整合實現價格和服務優勢,雖在供應鏈維度進行整合有難度(沒有商流的助攻),但由于其在物流之外與客戶不存在沖突,也有所突破。

      不同背景出身的物流企業戰略發展路徑截然不同:

      制造或品牌鏈主企業所孵化的物流企業按照垂直整合->產品能力打造->水平整合方式演進;

      平臺鏈主企業所孵化的物流企業按照水平整合->產品能力打造->垂直整合方式演進;

      純物流出身的物流企業按照產品能力->產品能力細分->垂直/水平整合演進。

      各企業均基于一個軸的強勢向其他兩個軸進擊,但目前還沒有在三個軸均建立優勢的企業(三維物流企業),可以說在兩個軸建立優勢的企業也鳳毛麟角。

      但這三個軸由于地位和控制主體的不同,存在著難以解決的矛盾。

      對于品牌企業來講,目前在一個省份甚至是一個城市由于多個銷售渠道的因素,分布著大大小小的多個倉庫。如果能夠整合成一個大庫,毫無疑問是最理想的方案。

      對于平臺企業來講,目前在一個省份甚至是一個城市由于多個品牌入駐的因素,分布著多個品牌倉庫。如果能夠整合成一個大庫,毫無疑問同樣也是最理想的方案。

      從當前來看,平臺明顯是占了上風,但對于品牌企業庫存割裂更加明顯。

      垂直與水平供應鏈難以解決的矛盾背后核心是供應鏈地位。強勢主體基于供應鏈上的優勢地位,通過威逼利誘讓弱勢主體讓渡其部分非核心甚至核心權利,這就是供應鏈脅迫。

      從物流角度:除非多品牌的全鏈條供應鏈物流整合,即品牌企業把全鏈條供應鏈物流全面導入平臺,否則矛盾永恒。

      從商流角度:平臺和品牌基于重要商業客戶、數據等的保護,矛盾巨大,品牌有淪為制造的風險。

      不少平臺都提出了端到端的物流解決方案,這對于品牌是重大的考驗和戰略選擇。

      對于品牌,目前我們看到了三種應對方案:

      一、將物流作為產業,并堅定垂直供應鏈整合以實現物流能力的競爭力打造,為此甚至付出商流上暫時的損失;

      二、將物流作為產業或有健全物流管理職能,致力推進垂直供應鏈整合,但在商流和物流上有所取舍;

      三、將物流作為交換條件或主要關注成本服務,配合平臺水平供應鏈整合,物流外包給平臺。

      這三種方式,無論對錯,也無論好壞,因為每個品牌的戰略目標是不同的,因為戰略最關鍵是取舍,不會戰略退卻,也就不會戰略進攻。但需要分清:哪里是上甘嶺?

      無論物流競爭力的打造是依靠哪個整合方向完成,都需要越過規模效應的臨界點。不同物流產品的臨界點不同,只有越過臨界點才有可能形成正反饋效應。越過臨界點需要采取多種方式(貨量引流-能力打造-成本優化-模式提升)

      當前物流被賦予了更多的內涵,物流的價值也不僅僅是把貨物及時準確完好的送達,對于庫存的控制和用戶觸點的把控成為爭奪的焦點。也導致了區域倉和宅配成為消費者物流的核心。

       

      來源:億歐網

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