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      在線課堂
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      公路貨物運輸常識
      姓名:Shechem 發布時間:2012/08/06

      公路運輸(RoadTransportation)是現代運輸主要方式之一,同時,也是構成陸上運輸的兩個基本運輸方式之一。它在整個運輸領域中占有重要的地位,并發揮著愈來愈重要的作用。

      目前,全世界機動車總數已達4億多輛,全世界現代交通網中,公路線長占2/3,約達2千萬公里,公路運輸所完成的貨運量占整個貨運量的80%左右,貨物周轉量占10%。在一些工業發達國家,公路運輸的貨運量、周轉量在各種運輸方式中都名列前茅,公路運輸已成為一個不可缺少的重要組成部分。

      據《中國交通年鑒》統計結果表明,1997年我國道路運輸完成貨運量97.7億噸,貨物周轉量5272億噸公里,分別是1996年的99.3%和105.2%。其中貨運量在五種運輸方式中為第一位。到1997年底,全國有營業性客貨運輸車輛450多萬輛,經營業戶270多萬戶,從事道路運輸業活動的人員有11000多萬人。

      公路運輸由公路和汽車兩部分組成。

      一、公路運輸的特點和作用

      公路運輸是一種機動靈活、簡捷方便的運輸方式,在短途貨物集散運轉上,它比鐵路、航空運輸具有更大的優越性,尤其在實現“門到門”的運輸中,其重要性更為顯著。盡管其他各種運輸方式各有特點和優勢,但或多或少都要依賴公路運輸來完成最終兩端的運輸任務。例如鐵路車站、水運港口碼頭和航空機場的貨物集疏運輸都離不開公路運輸。

      但公路運輸也具有一定的局限性,如:載重量小,不適宜裝載重件、大件貨物、不適宜走長途運輸;車輛運行中震動較大,易造成貨損貨差事故,同時,運輸成本費用較水運和鐵路為高。

      二、公路運輸的經營方式

      在市場經濟條件下,公路運輸的組織形式一般有以下幾種類別。

      (一)公共運輸業(CommonCarrier)

      這種企業專業經營汽車貨物運輸業務并以整個社會為服務對象,其經營方式有:

      1.定期定線。不論貨載多少,在固定路線上按時間表行駛。

      2.定線不定期。在固定路線上視貨載情況,派車行駛。

      3.定區不定期。在固定的區域內根據貨載需要,派車行駛。

      (二)契約運輸業(ContractCarrier)

      按照承托雙方簽訂的運輸契約運送貨物。與之簽訂契約的一般都是一些大的工礦企業,常年運量較大而又較穩定。契約期限一般都比較長,短的有半年、一年,長的可達數年。按契約規定,托運人保證提供一定的貨運量,承運人保證提供所需的運力。

      (三)自用運輸業(PrivateOperator)

      工廠、企業、機關自置汽車,專為運送自己的物資和產品,一般不對外營業。

      (四)汽車貨運代理(FreightForwarder)

      本身既不掌握貨源也不掌握運輸工具。他們以中間人身份一面向貨主攬貨,一面向運輸公司托運,借此收取手續費用和傭金。有的汽車貨運代理專門從事向貨主攬取零星貨載,加以歸納集中成為整車貨物,然后自己以托運人名義向運輸公司托運,賺取零擔和整車貨物運費之間的差額。

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