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      成本核算的方法
      發布時間:2010/08/17

      1.按支付形態劃分并核算物流成本。 
        把物流成本分別按運費、保管費、包裝材料費、自家配送費(企業內部配送費)、人事費、物流管理費、物流利息等支付形態記賬。從中可以了解物流成本總額,也可以了解什么經費項目花費最多。對認識物流成本合理化的重要性,以及考慮在物流成本管理應以什么為重點,十分有效。 
        2.按功能劃分并核算物流成本。 
        分別按包裝、配送、保管、搬運、信息、物流管理等功能來核算物流費用。從這種方法可以看出哪種功能更耗費成本,比按形態計算成本的方法能更進一步找出實現物流合理化的癥結。而且可以計算出標準物流成本(單位個數、質量、容器的成本),進行作業管理,設定合理化目標。 
        3.按適用對象劃分并核算物流成本的方法。 
        按適用對象核算物流成本,可以分析出物流成本都用在哪一種對象上。如可以分別把商品、地區、顧客或營業單位作為適用對象來進行計算。 
        按支店或營業所核算物流成本,就是要算出各營業單位物流成本與銷售金額或毛收入的對比,用來了解各營業單位物流成本中存在的問題,以加強管理。 
        按顧客核算物流成本的方法,又可分按標準單價計算和按實際單價計算兩種計算方式。按顧客計算物流成本,可用來作為選定顧客、確定物流服務水平等制訂顧客戰略的參考。 
        按商品核算物流成本是指通過把按功能計算出來的物流費,用以各自不同的基準,分配各類商品的方法計算出來的物流成本。這種方法可以用來分析各類商品的盈虧,在實際運用時,要考慮進貨和出貨差額的毛收入與商品周轉率之積的交叉比率。 
        4.采用ABC成本法核算物流成本。 
        以活動為基礎的成本分析法是被人為確定和控制物流費用最有前途的方法。 
        以作業為基礎,把企業消耗的資源按資源動因分配到作業,以及把作業收集的作業成本按作業動因分配到成本對象的核算方法。其理論基礎是:生產導致作業的發生,作業消耗資源并導致成本的發生,產品消耗作業,因此,作業成本法下成本計算程序就是把各種資源庫成本分配給各作業,再將各作業成本庫的成本分配給最終產品或勞務。 
        以作業為中心,不僅能提供相對準確的成本信息,而且還能提供改善作業的非財務信息。以作業為紐帶,能把成本信息和非財務信息很好地結合起來,即以作業為基礎分配成本,同時以作業為基礎進行成本分析和管理。 
        應用作業成本法核算企業物流并進行管理可分為如下四個步驟: 
        (1)界定企業物流系統中涉及的各個作業。作業是工作的各個單位,作業的類型和數量會隨著企業的不同而不同。例如,在一個顧客服務部門,作業包括處理顧客訂單、解決產品問題以及提供顧客報告三項作業。 
        (2)確認企業物流系統中涉及的資源。資源是成本的源泉,一個企業的資源包括有直接人工、直接材料、生產維持成本(如采購人員的工資成本)、間接制造費用以及生產過程以外的成本(如廣告費用)。資源的界定是在作業界定的基礎上進行的,每項作業以涉及相關的資源,與作業無關的資源應從物流核算中剔除。 
        (3)確認資源動因,將資源分配到作業。作業決定著資源的耗用量,這種關系稱作資源動因。資源動因聯系著資源和作業,它把總分類賬上的資源成本分配到作業。 
        (4)確認成本動因,將作業成本分配到產品或服務中。作業動因反映了成本對象對作業消耗的邏輯關系,例如,問題最多的產品會產生最多顧客服務的電話,故按照電話數的多少(此處的作業動因)把解決顧客問題的作業成本分配到相應的產品中去。

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